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Portugal (1916-1918) Senussi (1915-1917), Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (1917-1918) "Romania in the First World War: The Pre-War Crisis, 1912–1914". A… Erich Ludendorff, Harper & brothers, 1919, Romanian military equipment of World War I, tactical defeats in the Southern Carpathians, Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, Diplomatic history of World War I#Romania, "Voluntari sârbi pe frontul românesc din Dobrogea", https://archive.org/stream/kingscompletehi00kinggoog#page/n260/mode/2up, "Chapter Fourteen: War Aims and Neutrality", "Preliminaries of Romania's Entering the World War I", First World War.com - Primary Documents - King Ferdinand's Proclamation to the Romanian People, 28 August 1916, "Romania's Entry into the First World War: The Problem of Strategy", Torpilorul SMEUL – un simbol al eroismului românilor, - * * * - Şarja de la Robăneşti - Enciclopedia României, German seaplanes in Dobruja 1916-1918 (in Romanian), Articles 248 - 263 - World War I Document Archive, 1914-1918-online. At the outbreak of hostilities, the Austro-Hungarian Empire invoked a casus foederis on Romania and Italy linked to the secret treaty of alliance since 1883. [70] The decisive effort was to be made by the Romanian First Army. Bulgaria was determined to observe it until the end of the war; but it hoped for bloodless territorial gains, aiming to recover the territories lost in the Second Balkan War and World War I, as well as gain other lands with a significant Bulgari… The offensive of the German Ninth Army, from the Army Group Mackensen, started on 6 August 1917, when the units of the Russian Fourth Army on the Siret River were expected to leave their positions to reinforce the front in the north of Moldavia and be replaced by the divisions of the Romanian First Army (commanded by General Constantin Cristescu until 12 August, then by General Eremia Grigorescu). [44], After the Romanian troops were initially able to stop the German advance on the Jiu Valley, the German army regrouped on 29 October 1916.  Romania (1944-1945) Bulgarian troops (aided by the German-Bulgarian Detachment)[41] surrounded and stormed the fortress of Turtucaia. Mackensen's success was favoured by the failure of the Allies to fulfill the obligation they had assumed through the military convention, by virtue of which they had to mount an offensive on the Macedonian front and the conditions in which the Russians deployed insufficient troops on the battlefront in the south-east of Romania. [44], Particular heed was paid to the actions carried on for the defense of the Carpathians' alignment, the fights on the Jiu River. The Romanian Land Forces, supported by the Danube Division of the Romanian Navy and by the actions of the Romanian cruiser NMS Elisabeta at the mouths of the Danube, managed to prevent the Central Powers from advancing into the Danube Delta, keeping it under Romanian control until the end of the war. The shot down seaplane was of the Friedrichshafen FF.33 type, as these were the only German naval bombers on the Romanian front. Judging by the military situation, it was to be expected that Rumania had only to advance where she wished to decide the world war in favor of those Powers which had been hurling themselves at us in vain for years. While the casualty records are incomplete (Bodart on the same page estimates the missing war losses and gets a total figure of 1,213,368 deaths rather than 521,146), the proportions are accurate. Go to https://mackweldon.com/ and use promocode "greatwar" at checkout. Paul von Hindenburg, Out of My Life, Vol.  Iceland Luxembourg (1940-1944) International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Video with the redrawing of the borders after the First World War, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, Negotiations of Bulgaria with the Central Powers and the Entente, Military convention between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Romania_during_World_War_I&oldid=1000296951, Battles of World War I involving Austria-Hungary, Battles of World War I involving Bulgaria, Battles of World War I involving the Ottoman Empire, Military operations of World War I involving France, Military operations of World War I involving Germany, Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, August 27, 1916 – December 1917, and November 10–11, 1918, 330,000–430,000 Romanian civilian dead from war-related causes between 1914 and 1918. The Central Powers suffered a tactical defeat in the First Battle of Cobadin on September 19, forcing them to halt their advance until mid-October.  Guatemala (1941-1945)  Monaco, Poland (1939) Panama Agriculture received special attention to help meet basic nutritional needs and ensure a minimal living standard to the population in the free part of the country, and also to assist the refugees who had left their houses in front of the enemy invasion, the Romanian army and the Russian troops (who numbered about one million by early 1917). One of the young officers was the future Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Moscow. [36] On that same night, the torpedo boats NMS Rândunica, Bujorescu and Catinca attacked the Austro-Hungarian Danube Flotilla at the Bulgarian port of Ruse, sinking one barge loaded with fuel and damaging the port's quay. The situation, however, once again took a turn for the worse for the Entente in November 1917 with the October Revolution in Russia and the beginning of the Russian Civil War. Bucharest was captured on 6 December by Falkenhayn's cavalry. Cuba Добричката епопея. The army corps became only a command body for tactical coordination. [43] The Romanian Third Army made further attempts to withstand the enemy offensive at Silistra, Dobrich, Amzacea, and Topraisar, but had to withdraw under the pressure of the enemy forces. Her numbers from the start were too small, too indifferently trained, and too weakly supplied with guns. Comparing the Soviet occupation of Romania to that of Bulgaria, David Stone notes: "Unlike Bulgaria, Romania had few cultural and historical ties with Russia, and had actually waged war on the Soviet Union. Bolivia Bahrain [55], In 1917, when both belligerent sides were making huge efforts to win the final victory, for Romania it was vitally important for Romanians to expel the occupying forces, since the existence of the Romanian state depended on it. It is the day of the union of all branches of our nation. [30], Between 1914 and 1916, 59 Romanian factories produced 400,000 artillery rounds, 70 million bullets, 1,500 caissons and 332 gun carriages. Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918), Only police troops Tsar Boris, however, appointed a new government under a notorious Germanophile, Bogdan Filov, and moved steadily closer to the German orbit. SPONSOR: Get 20% off of your first order at Mack Weldon. Southern Romania, including Oltenia, Muntenia, Dobruja and southern Moldavia, was now in the hands of the Central Powers. Komancza Republic, Co-belligerents Mark Axworthy, Cornel I. Scafeș, Cristian Crăciunoiu, Sondhaus, Lawrence (2000). Idrisid Emirate of Asir (1915-1918) Let justice be done to the fortitude of the Rumanian retreat. Her generals were quick to grasp the elements of danger, and by their defence of the central passes prevented the swift and utter disaster of which her enemies dreamed. Bulgaria - Bulgaria - World War II: After World War II began, Bulgaria proclaimed neutrality. Russian reinforcements under General Andrei Zaionchkovsky arrived to halt Mackensen's army before it cut the rail line that linked Constanța with Bucharest. The Second Balkan War was fought by Greece, Serbia, the Ottoman Empire and Romania against Bulgaria. On 28 November 1918, the Romanian representatives of Bukovina voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania, followed by the proclamation of a Union of Transylvania with Romania on 1 December 1918 by the National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, gathered at Alba Iulia, while the representatives of the Transylvanian Saxons approved the act on 9 January 1919 at an assembly in Mediaș (Medgyes). Establishment of new Afghan government and creation of the new Afghan National Army. Yugoslavia (1941-1945)  Panama (1941-1945) There was already snow covering the mountains and soon operations would have to halt for the winter. [28] Within two days of her own declaration, according to one source, Romania found herself at war with all the Central Powers.[29]. First World War Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913. [62], The Romanian army's reconstruction involved both re-organization and modernization. There, the Germans had massed large forces to beat their way south of the mountains. Russian victories in Galicia in 1916, Allied promises of territory, and fear of Germany finally convinced Romania to join the war on the side of Britain, Russia, France, and Italy. Led by Antonescu, Romania participated fully in the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Dervish state They also requisitioned two million tons of grain from Romanian farmers. The Romanian warship counterattacked, damaging the submarine's periscope and conning tower and forcing her to retreat. Czechoslovakia Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. Japan Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic [62], With a view to achieving the unity of action of internal political forces that was indispensable to safeguarding the nation's interests, a government of national union was set up in Iaşi on 24 December 1916, led by Ion I. C. Brătianu. But in spite of the human, material and military efforts made by the Central Powers throughout this period, they failed to achieve their fundamental political and strategic goal to defeat Romania and knock it out of the war. Costa Rica Throughout the Antonescu years, Romania supplied Nazi Germany and the Axis armies with oil, grain, and industrial products. Историко-библиографски справочник, Добрич 2006, с. Therefore, the Kingdom of Romania continued to exercise the attributes of an independent and sovereign state, allied to the Entente powers.  Serbia History. 1916:[6] 658,088 30,000 20,000 1,6001917: 400,000 1,000,000, 535,700[15]335,706 dead120,000 wounded80,000 captured 50,000. The Romanian ambassador in Vienna actually transmitted the declaration of war on 27 August. In areas populated with Romanians, the Romanian troops were warmly welcomed, and the locals provided them considerable assistance in terms of provisions, billeting and guiding. The example of Bulgaria and Romania clearly shows that this kind of freedom means total transition to the control of the opponent as the countries demonstrate consistent anti-Russian policies. Given their dramatic character, the clashes for the Predeal town and railway station were frequently compared with the heaviest fights on the Western Front. 832-833, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. The Allies supported the maintenance of the Romanian front by continuing to deliver and supplement previously placed orders. At the start of World War I, King Carol I of Romania favored Germany, while the nation's political elite favored the Entente. On the night of August 27, 1916, three Romanian armies (First, Second and Northern Army [ro]), deployed according to the Romanian campaign plan (Hypothesis Z), launched the Battle of Transylvania through the Carpathians. In response, the Romanian Command prepared a counter-offensive known under the name of the Battle of the Argeş (part of the Battle of Bucharest) and designated the recently promoted General Constantin Prezan to lead it. Russian victories in Galicia in 1916, Allied promises of territory, and fear of Germany finally convinced Romania to join the war on the side of Britain, Russia, France, and Italy. In early June 1917, the Romanian army's strength grew to about 700,000 men, organized in 207 infantry battalions plus 60 march battalions, 110 cavalry squadrons and 245 artillery batteries, divided among two armies and five corps. [39] However, the rapid Romanian advance alarmed the Central Powers, and within weeks sizable reinforcements began arriving at the scene. Brazil (1917-1918)  Nicaragua (1941-1945) The Romanian forces could not withstand the new German attack which started on 1 November 1916. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Greek border (the Salonica campaigns), and having a territorial interest in Dobruja, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.  Finland (1941-1944) And the staunch valor of the Roman legionaries still lived in the heroic band who, under Anastasiu, cut their way from Orsova to the Aluta.[83]. For us the mountains and plains of Bukowina, where Stephen the Great has slept for centuries. Animated by the holy duty imposed upon us, and determined to bear manfully all the sacrifices inseparable from an arduous war, we will march into battle with the irresistible élan of a people firmly confident in its destiny. Romania had been pro-Allied during World War I, but sided with Germany for roughly the same reasons as Finland; the Soviet Union had annexed parts of Romania (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina) in 1940. In the coalition Fatherland Front government, the communists had control of the interior and judicial ministries, which were crucial in setting up …  Colombia (1943-1945), Co-belligerents The Romanian occupation of Transylvania was widely resented by Hungarians, the war ended with the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. [25] Other sources place the declaration on 30 August[26] or 1 September. [52][53] This was probably caused by an encounter with the Romanian torpedo boat NMS Smeul, whose captain surprised a German submarine near Sulina in November 1916, the latter reportedly never returning to her base at Varna. Fierce fighting took place in the Battle of Râmnicu Sărat between 22 and 26 December, with Mackensen's forces entering the town on 27 December. These materials were vital in keeping Germany in the war to the end of 1918.[79]. The Romanian campaign plan (Hypothesis Z) consisted in attacking Austria-Hungary in Transylvania, while defending Southern Dobruja and Giurgiu from Bulgaria in the south. The Russian Army was now both demoralized and nearly out of supplies. [54] Her Flotilla briefly remained without a minelaying submarine, until UC-23 was commissioned in early December. The military convention they signed with the Allies stipulated that France and Britain should start an offensive against Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire no later than August 1916, that Russia would send troops into Dobruja, and that the Romanian army would not be subordinated to Russian command. The artillery material underwent a homogenization process, with two regiments (one cannon, the other howitzer) for each division, while the heavy artillery was organized as a distinct group. This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 08:58. The Romanian soldiers were supported everywhere by the civil population; during the Battle of Târgu Jiu, the town was defended by its inhabitants, men, women and children, young and old. Page 51, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Other notable Romanians who fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army included Oberleutnant (Locotenent-Major) and Imperial Adviser Constantin Isopescu-Grecul, as well as Octavian Codru Tăslăuanu, who also wrote valuable memoirs about his war experience. In our moral energy and our valour lie the means of giving him back his birthright of a great and free Rumania from the Tisza to the Black Sea, and to prosper in peace in accordance with our customs and our hopes and dreams.  Romania (1941-1944) Initiated by surprise with three divisions, the offensive succeeded in disrupting the well-organized enemy defenses and compelling the Austro-Hungarians and Germans to retreat. That same month, German and Italian ambassadors demanded the return of northern Transylvania to Hungary. Monaco The results obtained in terms of re-organization and recovery impressed public opinion both at home and abroad and were to be confirmed in the great battles of the ensuing months. The entry of the Kingdom of Romania into the war on the side of the Entente in August 1916 did not strengthen the alliance. Brazil (1942-1945) These events effectively ended Russian involvement in the war and left Romania isolated and surrounded by the Central Powers.  Italy (1943-1945) Samoilă Mârza, a private in the Austro-Hungarian Army, reached as far as Riga and became the first Romanian war photographer.  Romania (1940), Client state Advances by other parts of Falkenhayn's Ninth Army also pushed through the mountains; the Romanian army was being ground down by the constant battle and their supply situation was becoming critical. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Armistice of Focșani • Treaty of Bucharest • Protocol of Berlin, The counteroffensive of the Central Powers, Министерство на войната, Щаб на войската, Българската армия в Световната война 1915 - 1918, Vol. However, due to the deteriorating situation in Transylvania, the offensive was cancelled on 3 October. In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916), terms for Romania's acquisition of territories within Austria-Hungary were stipulated. Iran (1943-1945), Governments in exile [40] This army attacked north from Bulgaria, starting on September 1. Despite heavy casualties, some 250,000 men (almost one third of the manpower mobilized in August 1916) compared to 105,000 Central Power casualties (including 60,000 Germans),[61] and losses of combat material, the Romanian army was still a force taken into consideration by allies and enemies alike and capable of offering resistance to further attacks. Grenades were also manufactured, with three factories producing 1.5 tons of explosives daily. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions, but it suffered from poor training and equipment, particularly when compared to its German counterparts. [51] In November, the German submarine UC-15 was sent on a minelaying mission off Sulina and never returned, being sunk by her own mines. Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire Fight a Four Way War War … Constantin Prezan • Alexandru Averescu;  Russia: Andrei Zayonchkovski • Vladimir Sakharov, Battle of Turtucaia • Battle of Bazargic • First Cobadin • Flămânda Offensive • Second Cobadin • Battle of Bucharest, 1918  Estonia (1940) The offensive pushed the Romanian defenders back through the mountains and into the plains by 26 November. The latter, however, had been occupied by Bavarian mountain troops in a flanking movement, and the Battle of Turnu Roșu Pass ended with the Romanians retaking the pass at a cost of 3,000 men. [68][69], Aware of the complex strategic situation, the Romanian Command lent its military policy a clear, realistic orientation of committing the entire population to battle, trying to act efficiently in keeping with the national goals and in harmony with the large-scale operations worked out at the coalition level. Within days of the invasion, Romanian authorities staged a pogrom against the Jewish population in … Nepal https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_Bulgaria_and_Romania The government of the Kingdom of Bulgaria under Prime Minister Georgi Kyoseivanov declared a position of neutrality upon the outbreak of World War II. 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