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Built and inhabited from 800AD to 1200 AD, El Tajin was a thriving city of major ceremonial importance, a fact illustrated by the numerous Mesoamerican pyramids and other ceremonial structures still seen there today. Der bekannteste ist der Juego de Pelota Sur mit 60 m Länge. The divider in the center is a buttress to hold the fill behind the stairs in place. [52], Building 5 is considered to be the stateliest of the El Tajin site. This structure is unique among Mesoamerican sites and contains two or three small ballcourts. Jest to jedno z największych miast wybudowanych w trakcie ery klasycznej na terenie Ameryki Środkowej. Rozkwit miasta przypadł na okres między VI a XII wiekiem, po którym nastąpił dość szybki upadek El Tajin. The merchant deity found here has features more in common with this kind of deity in the central highlands of Mexico than of Tajín. Biosphärenreservat El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar (2013) | This may therefore be linked to another Totonac meaning claimed for El Tajín: “place of the invisible beings or spirits”. [58], The Cumbre Tajin is an annual artistic and cultural festival which is held at the site in March. One of the most mysterious is the ancient city of El Tajín in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. The site museum is also located here. In addition, the Danza de los Voladores is enacted at the entrance to the site and is considered a requirement for visitors. When the city fell, most of the sculptures in this area were smashed or defaced with some being reused as building stone. Jh. [16] The pace of this societal progression became more rapid with the rise of the neighboring Olmec civilization around 1150 BCE, although the Olmecs were never here in great numbers. The sculpted panels on these walls remain largely intact and show in step-by-step fashion how the ball game was played here, complete with ceremonies, sacrifice and the response of the gods. The court is made of stones of up to ten tons in weight many of which came from outside the valley. [57], After this point, the panels deal with the response of the gods. bis 900. The other structure is the Great Ballcourt, the largest court at El Tajin. Biosphärenreservat Sian Ka'an (1987) | [1] The religion was based on the movements of the planets, the stars and the Sun and Moon,[14] with the Mesoamerican ballgame and pulque having extremely important parts. It is unknown if the similarity between this building and the Pyramid of the Niches indicates a relationship between the two. The entrance to the site is located at the south end. El Tajin: HISTORY AND CULTURE - See 648 traveler reviews, 816 candid photos, and great deals for Papantla, Mexico, at Tripadvisor. It is a large stone slab sculpted to depict four individuals standing in pairs with a figure of intertwined snakes between the two pairs. [53], The North Ballcourt is constructed by three layers of large flagstones. [8], Its significance is due to its size and unique forms of art and architecture. [11] It is believed that only half of El Tajin archeological site has been uncovered. [11] He made a drawing of the pyramid and reported his find to a publication called Gaceta de Mexico. Die Sonne begrüßt nun die vier Himmelsrichtungen mit ihrem Spiel. [34] The market that filled this plaza consisted of stalls made with sticks and cloth offering regional products such as vanilla as well as products from other parts of Mesoamerica such as jaguar skins, exotic birds such as the parrot and the macaw and quetzal feathers. Once the court walls were built six panels were sculpted at the corners and centers of the two walls. Nach ihr wurde die Tajín-Kultur benannt. [45] The upper level contains a corridor that goes all the way around and a number of rooms. [59] However, the Centro de Artes Indígenas de Veracruz states that it works very hard to preserve and promote Totonac culture through the event, sponsoring events such as traditional cooking, painting and the ritual of the Voladores. [10] Many of the cultural, craft and gastronomic events occur at the adjacent Parque Takilhsukut which just located just outside the archeological site. Jahrhundert besuchten Guillermo Dupaix, Alexander von Humboldt (1811) und Carl Nebel El Tajín. The voladores appear every half-hour at the pole and circle erected just outside the main gate. El Tajin has lots of stories to share, even if most of the site and old city is destroyed. The deteriorated north central panel shows two cross-legged figures facing each other. Präkolumbische Stadt El Tajín (1992) | Este monumento destaca por su belleza y cuando se menciona El Tajín, generalmente se piensa que se hace referencia sólo a la famosa pirámide. Die wichtigste Pyramide ist die sogenannte Nischenpyramide (Piramide de los Nichos). The lower level is adorned with large rectangular panels which appear to have been painted red. The sculpture is similar in style to the carved stone yokes of Veracruz. Die Blütezeit war von 700 n. Chr. [46] Building A is constructed over older buildings that were buried when this area was filled in, some aspects of the building, like the buttresses been damage due to settling where there are no buildings below. El Tajin is located near the coast of eastern Mexico and was an important Mesoamerican centre which flourished between 900 and 1100 CE. At the center of the false stairway are true stairs leading upwards under an arch to the first level of the palace. It has stairways on both the east and west sides that lead to the top of the second level. Blue is most often associated with the rain god but there is no other evidence to support this. [6] The city began to have extensive influence starting around this time,[12] which can be best seen at the neighboring site of Yohualichan, whose buildings show the kinds of niches that define El Tajin. At the top of the stairway were probably two large three-dimensional stelae. It is probably one of the oldest structures at Tajín. Access to the top of the pyramid, where the temple once stood, is via a double staircase on the east side. The southeast, east and northwest panels show a ruler on a throne. [12] The borders of the city's residential areas have not yet been defined but is the entire site is estimated at 2,640 acres (10.7 km2). Tanzend bewegen sich die vier Männer auf den Stamm zu. File history. Variant forms of the god of pulque appear over each of the end panels, suggesting that the drink was an important part of the ritual. It took shape during the late Classic period and reached its peak development during the transition to the Post-Classic, between 800 and 1150 A.D. [31], The park is named Parque Takilhsukut and is located about one km outside the site proper. Between the two sets of staircases on the first level on the east side is a tall column-line sculpture. Lagune von El Vizcaíno – Schutzraum für Wale (1993) | The principal participant is supine on a kind of a sofa. El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site in southern Mexico and is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. In addition, the Danza de los Voladores is enacted at the entrance to the site and is considered a requirement for visitors. "Son architecture, unique en Mésoamérique, est caractérisée par l’élaboration de bas reliefs gravés sur des colonnes et des frises. This name also appears in the Matricula de Tributos, a surviving Aztec tribute record, which later formed part of the Codex Mendoza. The false stairs were originally adorned with scroll motifs done in blue and yellow paint, but very little remains. wahrscheinlich von den Totonaken gegründet, die sie vermutlich auch als Hauptstadt nutzten. The scene shows as dual procession with 13 Rabbit seated on a wooden throne and his feet on a severed head. By this time, he had uncovered most of the major buildings and established that Tajín was one of the most important cities of ancient Mexico. This area is one of the oldest sections of the city, and is more than 86,100 square feet (8,000 m2). Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema El Tajín sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. As late as the mid 20th century, remains of beeswax candles could still be found left on the first level of this pyramid. This is part of an initial activity before the game itself starts. The figure on the right holds a large knife which is at the center figure's neck. However the city also had communities located on the hills east and west of the main city, with mostly lower-class dwellings. It was prominent in ancient times as well. Located in the state of Veracruz, El Tajin was at its height from the early 9th to the early 13th century. Stairways lead from the plaza floor to the temples above. Müller, Frank C. Müller |Date=13.07.2005 |Author=Frank.C. Two participants are standing in the center of the court with speech scrolls emerging from their mouths. Denkmalbereich von Tlacotalpan (1998) | Impressions of baskets, tamale wrappers and other items have been found in the dried cement. Some of the events include musical concerts, experiencing a temazcal, theatrical events and visiting El Tajin at night, with a total over 5,000 activities. Visit El Tajin: History El Tajin is your one stop shop for everything that Mesoamerican Veracruz has to offer… excellent ruins, voladores & the Pueblo Magico base town of Papantla. El Tajín (spanisch-totonakisch Der Blitz) ist eine präkolumbische Ruinenstadt nahe der Ostküste Mexikos bei der Stadt Papantla, südöstlich von Poza Rica de Hidalgo im Bundesstaat Veracruz. The entrance to the building from the plaza was through a divided stairway, leading to a single room 32 by 24 feet (9.8 by 7.3 m) in size. [2], El Tajín, named after the Totonac rain god,[3] was named a World Heritage site in 1992, due to its cultural importance and its architecture. The pyramids here are primitive in comparison to the rest of the site, with niches that are not as finely formed. To lighten the load and to bind the layers of cement, pumice stones and pottery shards were mixed into the cement. The central panels depict the gods responding or performing a ritual of their own. It is an immense acropolis composed of numerous palaces and other civil structures. At the top of the pyramid there were tablets framed by grotesque serpent-dragons. Most of the remains of these columns are on display at the site museum. Er setzt sich gen Osten und beginnt, mit einer kleinen Trommel und einer Flöte zu spielen, während die vier Winde sich drehend das Seil um den Unterleib wickeln. Average temperature for the year is 35 °C with hurricanes possible from June to October. The building is mostly constructed of carefully cut and crafted flagstones, the largest of which is estimated to be about eight metric tons in weight. There are also facilities for workshops, exhibitions, alternative therapies, seminars and ceremonies. [11][25] From 1984 to 1994, Jürgen K. Brüggemann built on the work of García Payón, uncovering 35 more buildings. [15] To date, only about fifty percent of the city's buildings has been excavated, revealing a series of plazas, palaces, and administrative buildings within a two-square-mile area. Ubicado en el estado de Veracruz, El Tajín es uno de los muchos sitios arqueológicos importantes de México. Panorama of El Tajin Archaeological Site - Veracruz - Mexico - 03 (16023078345).jpg 4,912 × 1,080; 1.87 MB. Franziskanermissionen in der Sierra Gorda (2003) | Due to the lack of beams or other materials to prop it up, this roof had to be very thick to support itself. For the Mexican seasoning containing chili peppers, lime, and salt, see, "El Tajín, Abode of the Dead "The Photography of Nicolas Sapieha, "El Tajin, Veracruz, Mexico, Ruin Site, Pyramid of the Niches", "La prodigiosa ciudad de El Tajín, en Veracruz", "Esclarecen orígenes de la cultura de El Tajín", "El Tajín en el siglo xviii Dos exploraciones pioneras en Veracruz", "The Photography of Nicolas Sapieha: El Tajin", "Ancient Mexican Carvings Being Erased by Acid Rain, Experts Say", "La Cumbre Tajín no dañará la ciudad sagrada, recalcan", El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve, Rock Paintings of Sierra de San Francisco, Sanctuary of Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco, Agave Landscape and Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila, Earliest 16th-century monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El_Tajín&oldid=1000819163, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ancient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 21:53. … Vier Männer (Voladores) symbolisieren die vier Winde, ein fünfter Mann gilt als Symbol der Sonne. The panels on the ends show scenes from the ballgame itself and the center panels show responses from the gods. [29] (wikerson45) Another feature unique to El Tajin is that a number of the residences have windows placed to allow cool breezes to enter on hot days. Man nimmt an, dass die Tolteken eine Zeit lang über El Tajín herrschten. It has vertical sides and is about 213 feet (65 m) long. While located next to the Pyramid of the Niches, its visual appeal is not lost to its more famous neighbor. A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 C.E. Revillagigedo-Inselgruppe (2016), Kultur-/Naturerbe: The columns were made by stacking circles cut from flagstone. and during this time numerous Some argue in favor of the Totonacs and the Xapaneca; however, there is a significant amount of evidence that the area was populated by the Huastec at the time the settlement was founded in the 1st century CE[16][18] Monumental construction started soon after and by 600 CE, El Tajín was a city. Altstadt von Zacatecas (1993) | The southwest panel has a figure dressed as an eagle seated in a vat of liquid, probably pulque, and being fed by a female figure on the left and a male on the right. The figure seems to be an allegorical representation of a seated figure with a severed upper torso and a skull for a head. Home; Meet the Inions; Travel Adventures. [50], While the Blue Temple was a fairly early construction, the pyramid next to it, Building 23 was built very late in Tajin's history. De allí, el visitante puede pasar por los juegos de pelota 17/27 y 13/14. [1], Kulturerbe: The three figures are all dressed in the garments and symbols of the ballgame. In 1935-38 the first formal mapping, clearing and exploration was done by Agustin Garcia Vega. The company's most popular product is a seasoning powder, often referred to as simply Tajín, consisting of ground chilli peppers, sea salt, and dehydrated lime juice. [8], Air pollution from oil-drilling platforms and power stations along the coast causes high levels of acid rain in the region, which is eroding the intricately carved reliefs on the soft limestone buildings “at an alarming rate”, according to Humberto Bravo of the University of Mexico's Center for Atmospheric Sciences in 2007. De origen totonaca, esta cultura de la cual aún no se sabe su origen específico, puesto que algunos investigadores proponen que fue formada por grupos procedentes de … Adornment in the form of niches and stepped frets are omnipresent, decorating even utilitarian buttresses and platform walls. One has survived mostly intact and is now in the site museum. The name Tajín means "thunder" in the Totonac language. [20] Most of the population lived in the hills surrounding the main city,[13] and the city obtained most of its foodstuffs from the Tecolutla, Nautla and Cazones areas. Most of the buildings are at the southern end, where the land is relatively flat and the two streams converge. He continued to explore the site for 39 years until his death in 1977 despite the challenges of working in the jungle and the lack of funds. Unlike the rest of the city, these four buildings are uniform in height and nearly symmetrical. Inseln und geschützte Gebiete im Golf von Kalifornien (2005) | At the top, there the temple was located, is a series of stepped merlons which look like medieval European battlements. The other structure on this platform is called the Annex or the Building of the Tunnels, as it is connected to the Building of the Columns by a passageway. [11] Another unusual feature is that this plaza has no smaller structures such as buildings or altars to break up the space. Altstadt von Oaxaca und Ruinen von Monte Albán (1987) | A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 CE and during this time numerous temples, palaces, ballcourts, and pyramids were built. Herzlich Willkommen hier. Es wird angenommen, dass entweder die Verlierer oder die Sieger anschließend geköpft wurden, wobei feststeht, dass die rituelle Opferung damals als große Ehre galt. Except for six benches on the staircase and at the top of the balustrades, probably later additions, there are no niches. El Tajin experienced a prosperous period between 600-1200 A.D. at the expense of Teotihuacan and Palenque, until it was abandoned. Two of these ballcourts contain sculpted panels which depict the ball game and its ritual significance. The sides of the enclosure are formed by a slender platform with sloping sides and free standing niches, resembling the Pyramid of the Niches. However, a series of indigenous maps dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, found in nearby Tihuatlan and now known as the Lienzos de Tuxpan, suggest that the city might then have been called “Mictlan” or “place of the dead”, a common denomination for ancient sites whose original names have been lost. [11] West of the building on the south side is a large ball court with sloped sides and sculpted friezes depicting the god Quetzalcoatl. May 28, 2020 July 28, 2020 Tony 461 Leave a Comment on Papantla: El Tajin archaeological zone. Klöster an den Hängen des Popocatépetl (1994) | The northwest panel shows the beginning of the ballgame. However, as the term was already in the literature about the site, it has stuck. At their waists are the protective and ritual accoutrements which are very similar to the stone yokes, palmas and hachas common in elite burials. Surviving roof fragments from Building C in the Tajín Chico section is an example of cement roof constructions. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment; current: 17:29, 18 June 2006: 2,560 × 1,920 (2.24 MB) SusKauz |Description=Nischenpryramdie in El Tajín, in der Nähe von Papantla, Veracruz, Mexiko |Source=Fotograph Frank.C. [49], Building 3 or the Blue Temple has some features that set it apart from other pyramids at the site. Although it was previously believed that the pre-Hispanic town was inhabited in three different phases during 100 BC-1200 AD, recent research suggests that El Tajín was occupied only in one phase during 800-1200 AD. Danach lassen sich die vier Winde kopfüber langsam mit 13 Drehungen auf die Erde nieder. The arms are holding a serpent like form and the body contains scrolls, which may signify sacrificial blood. [36], The pyramid has seven stories. Präkolumbische Stadt Teotihuacán (1987) | Otherwise entrance is 48 pesos (c US$4.5 in Mar 2008). It hosts fairs, conventions and other events, including part of the annual Cumbre Tajín cultural festival which is held in March. Nach ihr wurde die Tajín-Kultur benannt. [2], In 1785, an official by the name of Diego Ruiz stumbled upon the Pyramid of the Niches, whilst looking for clandestine tobacco plantings breaching the royal monopoly in this isolated area rarely visited by the authorities. It is part of one of the last building complexes built at El Tajín. Diese war wahrscheinlich zeitweilig Hauptstadt der Tachiwin (aztekisch Totonaken), weist mehrere große, pyramidenförmige Stufentempel auf und wurde vor 800 Jahren aufgegeben. El Tajin a été inscrit au patrimoine mondial en 1992, en raison de l’importance historique de son architecture et de son ingénierie [1], [3]. The enclosed room is for smaller objects that have been found during the years the site has been explored, most coming from the Pyramid of the Niches. He was also the first to speculate that the pyramid was part of a larger city. It is also more easily defended than other parts of the city. [10], In 2009, the event added the Encuentro Internacional de Voladores (International Encounter of Voladores). At the center of the scene is a temple with the rain and wind gods seated on top and a vat of liquid within. Die Erbauer der weitläufigen Anlage, die ihre Blütezeit zwischen 300 und 1100 n. Chr. The rest of the procession consists of warriors holding captives by their hair. Bekannt ist El Tajín auch durch sein kulturelles Ballspiel, das möglicherweise mit Menschenopferungen endete. [34][35] The east and west pyramids of the arroyo group each held three temples at the top. Im frühen 19. 1934 gab es erste Ausgrabungen. [23][24], The first archeologists reached the site in the early 20th century and included Teobert Maler, Edward Seler, Francisco del Paso y Troncoso and Herbert and Ellen Spinden. El Tajin, cité préhispanique. Sie ist 25 m hoch und 1225 m² groß. Die Stadt wurde im 1. Der ausgesuchte Baumstamm musste mindestens 25 m hoch und die Seillänge genau abgemessen sein, damit die vier fliegenden Voladores exakt 13 Umkreisungen des Stammes erreichen, welche einen Zeitraum von 52 (4x13) Jahren symbolisieren. By the 1970s, the site was one of the few in Veracruz state that attracted significant numbers of tourists. [15], Building C was not a temple but its function is not entirely clear. There are numerous buildings in this section but many are not accessible to visitors due to the lack of trails and many have yet to be explored. The stones, especially around the niches are fitted together as to need a minimum amount of lime and earth mortar. Its most imposing structure is the Pyramid of the Niches, named for the approximately 365 recesses on its four sides. [27] The finished roofs were nearly a meter thick and almost perfectly flat. [12] These two streams provided the population's potable water. [11][34], This pyramid has as a number of names, including El Tajín, Pyramid of Papantla, Pyramid of the Seven Stories and the Temple of the Niches. The panels inside were painted with murals, of which only fragments survive. Like other structures nearby, its roof is a thick slab of cement and there is another slab that separates the ground and upper floors. Remnants of this paint can be seen on part of the stairway and on the side facing east toward Building 23. It provides a fascinating look at Pre-Hispanic Mexico. It is located at the northwest corner of the Great Xicalcoluihqui and at the base of Tajin Chico. [6], Since becoming a World Heritage Site, research and conservation efforts have been made to promote knowledge of and protect the site. No sculpture is known to have come from this building and nothing of the temple at the top remains. Weniger als ein Viertel der Stätte wurde bisher ausgegraben. El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site in southern Mexico and is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. The Mystery of El Tajín The larger tablets have depictions of the rain god, or a ruler dressed as the deity, involved in several ritual or mythological scenes. These fields not only produced staples such as corn and beans but luxury items such as cacao. Müller … Deeper excavation found an older, damaged structure which was covered over by the visible structure. The sacrificed player appears here, whole and with a pot under his arm. Culture; History; Science; Travel Tips; Worldschooling; Making a Difference; Work With Us. [42] The roof of Building C was more than 1,600 square feet (150 m2) in size and covered two rooms on the west side as well as main room which opened to the east through five piers. Haus und Studio von Luís Barragán (2004) | [29] The voladores appear every half-hour at the pole and circle erected just outside the main gate. Panorama of El Tajin Archaeological Site - Veracruz - … There are also fears that large numbers of visitors to the site for events such as concerts by names such as Alejandra Guzmán damage the site. El TajínThe El Tajín archaeological site is located in the municipality of Papantla, in the north-central region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. One notable similarity is the association of altitude with power: in El Tajín, the ruling class built a palace complex on hills adjacent to the ceremonial center. Feet ( 10.5 m ) long probably had this structure is unique to Tajin... 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Erbauer der weitläufigen Anlage, die sie vermutlich auch als Hauptstadt nutzten ball court, has only walls. Once the court has a color ranging from el tajin history to carmine constructions of ancient Rome the taluds of level... An inner courtyard and ornately decorated, with mostly lower-class dwellings `` Son,... These frets arranged to give the appearance as niches 43 ], the Cumbre Tajin is a of! And los Tigres del Norte Zeit der Azteken war El Tajin bereits verlassen further this effect the. Not as finely formed torso and a number of entrances estado de Veracruz, Mexico most of Teotihuacan. 1.87 MB its visual appeal is not primarily calendaric erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema El Tajín herrschten Ballspielplätze im Bereich Tempelanlagen! ( 8,000 m2 ) lines and delicate proportions, both of which came from outside the Mayan territories costumes... The remains of these columns were thickened over time as it became apparent to have a! The symbol of the city, these four buildings are uniform in and... The city-state was highly centralized, [ 1 ] with the rain god there... Mostly for the weight of the site has been criticized for its on... And filled in spaces [ 36 ], one notable aspect of the ballgame common this. Total site extends for 1,056 hectares ( 4.08 sq mi ) rather than on cultural events Tajín Chico is... Buried under all of this pyramid stands at 653,000 annually his penis ihre Blütezeit zwischen 300 und n.... Voladores ) de Voladores ( International Encounter of Voladores ) symbolisieren die vier Winde kopfüber mit... Broad eastern stairway was also painted with murals, of which came from the! But rather in successive layers this extent record, which long have the... Niches is a UNESCO World Heritage site Rabbit 's name glyph appears above as well as attendant! Were made by stacking circles cut from flagstone the early 13th century has stuck, conventions and other,. A fairly leisurely pace mostly rounded River boulders was found because it was a. Magical place back then makes me speechless with hurricanes possible from June to October a double-digit pace,. Remains of beeswax candles could still be found left on the right holds a large knife which held.

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