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He successfully defended his new domains against the attacks of Louis XI of France, defeating the French at the Battle of Guinegate in 1479. In 1500 the imperial princes at the Reichstag in Augsburg withdrew considerable power from Maximilian and invested it in the Reichsregiment, a supreme council of 21 electors, princes, and others. In 1499/1500 he conquered it and drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile. A new organ was introduced, the Reichskammergericht, that was to be largely independent from the Emperor. He then drove the Turks from his southeastern borders, married Bianca Maria Sforza of Milan (1494), and handed over the Low Countries to his son Philip (1494), reserving, however, the right of joint rule. He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England. Already before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs. Biography. At the same time, the death of Berthold of Mainz rid him of one of his main opponents. Their aim was to partition the Republic of Venice. As part of the Treaty of Arras, Maximilian betrothed his three-year-old daughter Margaret to the Dauphin of France (later Charles VIII), son of his adversary Louis XI. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 18. [43] In this vein, he commissioned a series of three monumental woodblock prints: The Triumphal Arch (1512–18, 192 woodcut panels, 295 cm wide and 357 cm high – approximately 9'8" by 11'8½"); and a Triumphal Procession (1516–18, 137 woodcut panels, 54 m long), which is led by a Large Triumphal Carriage (1522, 8 woodcut panels, 1½' high and 8' long), created by artists including Albrecht Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer and Hans Burgkmair. There was also a consensus that deep reforms were needed to preserve the unity of the Empire. The princes would permit no strengthening of the central authority, and this limitation of power neutralized imperial policies. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. He then became a candidate for the vacant Hungarian throne. [34] The marriages he arranged for both of his children more successfully fulfilled the specific goal of thwarting French interests, and after the turn of the sixteenth century, his matchmaking focused on his grandchildren, for whom he looked away from France towards the east. Pope Julius’s severe illness prompted Maximilian to consider accepting the office of pope, which the schismatic Council of Pisa offered him. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 until his father's death in 1493. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. By his marriage in 1477 to Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold , duke of Burgundy , Maximilian acquired the vast Burgundian possessions in the Netherlands and along the eastern frontier of France . Maximilian was always troubled by financial shortcomings; his income never seemed to be enough to sustain his large-scale goals and policies. [8][9] Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. He was, however, related to the Habsburgs both by blood and by marriage. At times pious, at other times antipapal, he thought he might win financial help from the German church if he were a rival pope, but in the end he let himself be dissuaded from this by Ferdinand II (the Catholic) of Aragon. Bavaria demanded money from Tyrol that had been loaned on the collateral of Tyrolean lands. At Guinegate the Landsknechte showed their mettle and would vie with the Swiss Reisläufer for primacy on the battlefield for more than a century. Gaining theoretical control of Tyrol for the Habsburgs was of strategic importance because it linked the Swiss Confederacy to the Habsburg-controlled Austrian lands, which facilitated some imperial geographic continuity. [38] However, the bribery claims have been challenged. Using Burgundian institutions as a model, he attempted to create a unified state. He was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. These marriages assured him of the succession in Spain and the control of the Spanish colonies. His parents were first cousins, and he was their eldest son. After taking control, Maximilian instituted immediate financial reform. In the war that followed, Maximilian was labelled an unreliable partner because of his lack of funds and troops. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. In 1490, the two nations demanded that Maximilian I step in to mediate the dispute. It emphasized the details in the shaping of the metal itself, rather than the etched or gilded designs popular in the Milanese style. Frederick, the son of Duke Ernest of Austria, inherited the Habsburg possessions of Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Gorizia) Vol XVII. Charles' father Philip died in 1506, so Charles succeeded Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, and thus ruled both the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire simultaneously. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1477 Maximilian married Mary, Duchess of Burgundy (1457 – 1482). [citation needed]. of requiring a Papal coronation for the adoption of the Imperial title. [10] This brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France. Between ages 11-19, Rudolf lived in Spain at the court of his uncle, Philip II of Spain, and returned to Vienna with a Spanish demeanor which pleased his mother. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [30], Years later, in order to reduce the growing pressures on the Empire brought about by treaties between the rulers of France, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, and Russia, as well as to secure Bohemia and Hungary for the Habsburgs, Maximilian met with the Jagiellonian kings Ladislaus II of Hungary and Bohemia and Sigismund I of Poland at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515. etc. Ferdinand II’s father, Charles II, ruled Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola, and Carinthia). Though he was the German king, he had not been crowned emperor by the pope, as was customary. Rise to the title of Holy Roman Emperor. Leopold II (Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria from 1790 to 1792, and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. 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