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Venus Victrix was thought to grant her favourites a relatively easy victory, worthy of an ovation and myrtle crown. Their sacrosanctity was enforced by a pledge, taken by the plebeians, to kill any person who harmed or interfered with a tribune during his term of office. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate, and alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship. Eventually, the office of pontifex maximus became a de facto consular prerogative. Ancient Roman Colors symbolism: 1) Red. Livy (xxii. Photo about SPQR symbol of Ancient Roman Republic with other old noble emblems on Capitol Hill monumental staircase in Rome. [210] In 217, near the beginning of the Second Punic War, Rome was forced to effectively ignore its long-standing principle that its soldiers must be both citizens and property owners. There was no such thing as an Ancient Roman Flag. "[318] Meat, fish and produce were a part of the Roman diet at all levels of society. They initially formed a closed group of about 50 large families, called gentes, who monopolised Rome's magistracies, state priesthoods and senior military posts. The letters S.P.Q.R. In terms of casualties, the Battle of Cannae was the worst defeat in the history of Rome: only 14,500 soldiers escaped; Paullus was killed as well as 80 senators. The conspiracy was set in motion in 63. [209], Citizen families were headed by the family's oldest male, the pater familias, who was lawfully entitled to exercise complete authority (patria potestas) over family property and all family members. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons[131] migrated from northern Europe into Rome's northern territories,[132] and clashed with Rome and her allies. These disasters prevented any significant campaign between 254 and 252. In 77, the senate sent one of Sulla's former lieutenants, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"), to put down an uprising in Hispania. The evolution of the Italian flag Because Italy has no affiliation with the Roman Empire. Carthage was an oligarchy at the time, dominated by the Barcids. Jun 5, 2017 - The Samnite flag. During times of military emergency, such as the civil wars of the 1st century, this practice became less prevalent, as the Roman Dictator, Triumvir or the senate itself would select its members. In 275, Pyrrhus left the island before he had to face a full-scale rebellion. Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire agreed to an alliance to conquer and divide Egypt. The starting point was in 400, when the first plebeian consular tribunes were elected; likewise, several subsequent consular colleges counted plebeians (in 399, 396, 388, 383, and 379). Towards the end of the Republic, the senate could enact a senatus consultus ultimum in times of emergency, instead of appointing a dictator. The SPQR is found to be used in the Roman vexilla. The city was besieged, stormed, and completely destroyed. [76], Hostilities in Sicily resumed in 252, with the taking of Thermae by Rome. The conspirators were then defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42. At home, the Republic similarly experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. The internal unrest reached its most serious state, however, in the two civil wars that were caused by the clash between generals Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla starting from 88. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities, both those under Etruscan control and those that had cast off their Etruscan rulers. [69][70] His successor Manius Valerius Corvinus Messalla landed with a strong 40,000 men army that conquered eastern Sicily, which prompted Hiero to shift his allegiance and forge a long lasting alliance with Rome. Sulla and his supporters then slaughtered most of Marius' supporters. The Roman Standard (Latin: Signum or Signa Romanum) was a pennant, flag, or banner, suspended or attached to a staff or pole, which identified a Roman legion (infantry) or Equites (cavalry). The legions of the late Republic were almost entirely heavy infantry. The Roman Calendar for Kids, and why February is the shortest month - Ancient Rome for Kids. Worn clothing was passed down the social scale until it fell to rags, and these in turn were used for patchwork. The flag was Vertical black, white, red. They pulled out of Greece entirely, maintaining minimal contacts with their Greek allies. It triggered a violent reaction from the Tarentine democrats, who sank some of the ships; they were in fact worried that Rome could favour the oligarchs in the city, as it had done with the other Greek cities under its control. [167] In 48, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers. The Second Mithridatic War began when Rome tried to annex a province that Mithridates claimed as his own. Around 66, a movement to use constitutional, or at least peaceful, means to address the plight of various classes began. In 197, the Romans decisively defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, and Philip was forced to give up his recent Greek conquests. In peacetime, most depended on whatever cereal crops they could produce on small farming plots, allotted to them by the state, or by patrons. [246][247] Faced with increasing competition from provincial and allied grain suppliers, many Roman farmers turned to more profitable crops, especially grapes for wine production. The Roman Empire as a whole spanned hundreds of years, and territorial boundaries shifted during that time. Since the tribunes were considered to be the embodiment of the plebeians, they were sacrosanct. The first was the comitia ("committees"),[181] which were assemblies of all optimo jure. The well-being of each Roman household was thought to depend on daily cult to its Lares and Penates (guardian deities, or spirits), ancestors, and the divine generative essence embodied within its pater familias. Download 1,161 Roman Flag Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! The name Caesar has become a synonym for Eventually, the triumvirate was renewed at Lucca. Horses, mules and donkeys were bred as civil and military transport. In the same period, Rome recruited the "Trojan" Magna Mater (Great Mother of the Gods) to the Roman cause, "Hellenised" the native Roman cult to Ceres; and took control of the Bacchanalia festival in Rome and its allied territories. [250], Republican Rome's religious practises harked back to Rome's quasi-mythical history. [213], In a process known as the Marian reforms, Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military. The Carthaginian refusal started the Second Punic War.[87]. It was in use until the supress of the republic on 29 September 1799. Patricians usually married in a form known as confarreatio, which transferred the bride from her father's absolute control or "hand" (manus) to that of her husband. The Mediterranean had at this time fallen into the hands of pirates,[145] largely from Cilicia. However, only fragments of Ennius' epic, the Annales, have survived, yet both Naevius and Ennius influenced later Latin epic, especially Virgil's Aeneid. Marius invaded Numidia and brought the war to a quick end, capturing Jugurtha in the process. [45], In 300, the two tribunes of the plebs Gnaeus and Quintus Ogulnius passed the Lex Ogulnia, which created four plebeian pontiffs, therefore equalling the number of patrician pontiffs, and five plebeian augurs, outnumbering the four patricians in the college. [327], In the 3rd century, Greek art taken as the spoils of war became popular, and many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Luxurious and highly coloured clothing had always been available to those who could afford it, particularly women of the leisured classes. The prior 70 years had witnessed a gradual erosion in senatorial powers. senatus consultum ultimum ("ultimate decree of the senate"). Caesar and Pompey, along with Marcus Licinius Crassus, established a private agreement, now known as the First Triumvirate. Kron, Geoffrey (2012), Scheidel, W. Gaius then proposed a law which would grant citizenship rights to Rome's Italian allies. A supporter of the war, the consul Appius Claudius Caudex (Caecus' brother) turned to the Tribal Assembly to get a favourable vote, by notably promising booty to voters. [184] The order that the thirty-five tribes would vote in was selected randomly by lot. [243][244] The urban plebs increasingly relied on firstly subsidised, then free grain. [186] The Plebeian Council[187] was identical to the assembly of the tribes, but excluded the patricians. The senate's ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the senators. Marius (between 105 and 86 BC), then Sulla (between 82 and 78 BC) dominated in turn the Republic; both used extraordinary powers to purge their opponents. Strictly speaking, it was the authority to command a military force. [clarification needed][170], Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. "SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senātus Populusque Rōmānus ("The Senate and People of Rome", see translation), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome. [257], Romans acknowledged the existence of innumerable deities who controlled the natural world and human affairs. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who even sacked the city in 387 BC. No contemporary written history of this period has survived. Later, the Campus became Rome's track and field playground. In practise, much of it was exploited by the nobility, using slaves rather than free labour. Ancient Roman Colors symbolism: 1) Red. Roman Empire: Rise of Rome! Early Roman literature was influenced heavily by Greek authors. Illustration about Roman Empire historical flag, SPQR, vector illustration, old symbol of the ancient empire. New users enjoy 60% OFF. Popular assemblies were by now sovereign; this put an end to the crisis, and to plebeian agitation for 150 years. His attack on Apollonia started the First Macedonian War. [312] Landowners were advised that female slaves not otherwise occupied should be producing homespun woolen cloth, good enough for clothing the better class of slave or supervisor. The whitest, most voluminous togas were worn by the senatorial class. AZ FLAG Roman Empire Flag 2' x 3' for a Pole - Roman Empire Flags 60 x 90 cm - Banner 2x3 ft with Hole. The Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper, but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival, Gaius Marius. Rome's first aqueduct (312) built during the Punic wars crisis, provided a plentiful, clean supply. [197] Constitutional government would be dissolved, and the dictator would be the absolute master of the state. The apparent incompetence of the Senate, and the brilliance of Marius, had been put on full display. The four time consul Gaius Marcius Rutilus became the first plebeian dictator in 356 and censor in 351. Ultimately, all of Carthage's North African and Iberian territories were acquired by Rome. This stab-in-the-back led to permanent bitterness in Carthage, and revanchism. (ed. 117) gives 70,000 dead. [261] The official recognition, adoption and supervision of foreign deities and practices, whether Etruscan, Sabine, Latin or colonial Greek, had been an important unitary feature in Rome's territorial expansion and dominance since the days of the kings. [167] His assumption of these powers decreased the authority of Rome's other political institutions. Here, we can see ancient roman republic flag, medieval coat of arms symbols eagle and ancient roman eagle symbol, may we can get among them for graphic materials to complete your graphic design. "Fear, greed, and glory: The causes of Roman war-making in the middle Republic." In 51, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies. [109] The decisive engagement was fought at the Battle of Magnesia, resulting in a complete Roman victory. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. In the 4th century, the Romans replaced it with the more flexible manipular formation. During this period, Roman soldiers seem to have been modelled after those of the Etruscans to the north,[200] who themselves are believed to have copied their style of warfare from the Greeks. "Rome Enters the Greek East". It could apply to a geographic area or to a particular responsibility or task. Senatus PopulusQue Romanus stood to tell everyone that what they had before them belonged to the Senate and the People of Rome. It simulates the politics of the Roman Senate during the republic. Welcome to Rome in the first century B.C.E. Livy mentions at least two patricians favourable to the tribunes: Which assembly was consulted has led to many discussions in the academic literature. Eryx. Jugurtha, however, turned on his brothers, killing Hiempsal and driving Adherbal out of Numidia. Barbette Stanley Spaeth, "The Goddess Ceres and the Death of Tiberius Gracchus". This was used by magistrates to maintain public order by imposing punishment for crimes. Illustration of roman, eagle, armored - 144569584 Extent of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between 218 BC and 117 AD.png 2,850 × 1,781; 3.9 MB Great Illyrian Revolt (English).svg 1,600 × 1,367; 3.51 MB Hannibal route of invasion - de.svg 1,080 × 807; 303 KB This was a form of government that allowed for people to elect officials. The Republic's most notable religious suppression was that of the Bacchanalia, a widespread, unofficial, enthusiastic cult to the Greek wine-god Bacchus. He had hidden his troops in the hills surrounding the lake and attacked Flaminius when he was cornered on the shore. The extraordinary demands of the Punic Wars, in addition to a shortage of manpower, exposed the tactical weaknesses of the manipular legion, at least in the short term. [164] Pompey initially defeated Caesar, but failed to follow up on the victory, and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48,[165] despite outnumbering Caesar's forces two to one, albeit with inferior quality troops. Orlin, Eric M., Foreign Cults in Republican Rome: Rethinking the Pomerial Rule. Please read the disclaimer While in Rome, all citizens were protected from coercion, by provocatio, which was an early form of due process. [124] In the past, for example, the senate would eliminate political rivals either by establishing special judicial commissions or by passing a Although they lost militarily, the allies achieved their objectives with legal proclamations which granted citizenship to more than 500,000 Italians. The Republic of Rome is an abstraction of over 250 years of history. [269] In the early Republic the patricians, as "fathers" to the Roman people, claimed the right of seniority to lead and control the state's relationship with the divine. The letters S.P.Q.R. He soon showed outstanding skills as a commander, by winning a series of battles with ingenious tactics. Pyrrhus again met the Romans at the Battle of Beneventum; this time the consul Manius Dentatus was victorious, and even captured eight elephants. The assembly of the tribes (i.e., the citizens of Rome), the Comitia Tributa, was presided over by a consul, and was composed of 35 tribes. I", at the cost of an important part of his troops, which crushed the Roman infantry on the Bagradas plain, besieged, stormed, and completely destroyed, History of the Constitution of the Roman Republic, Legislative Assemblies of the Roman Republic, Executive magistrates of the Roman Republic, prodigies (unnatural or aberrant phenomena), "Trojan" Magna Mater (Great Mother of the Gods), "Roman Republic | History, Government, Map, & Facts", "Rome: Transition from Republic to Empire", Classes: the Evolution of the Roman Imperial Fleets, Senators' Involvement in Commerce in the Late Republic: Some Ciceronian Evidence, Aristocrats and Agriculture in the Middle and Late Republic, Legendary Genealogies in Late-Republican Rome, The Myth of the Toga: Understanding the History of Roman Dress. "Rome Enters the Greek East". The talks nevertheless failed because Scipio wanted to impose harsher terms on Carthage, in order to avoid it from rising again as a threat to Rome. Triumphal generals dressed as Jupiter Capitolinus, and laid their victor's laurels at his feet. Rome's military secured Rome's territory and borders, and helped to impose tribute on conquered peoples. 95. 1993. Following Rome's disastrous defeat at Cannae, the State's most prominent written oracle recommended the living burial of human victims in the Forum Boarium to placate the gods. [122] His law was enacted, but Tiberius was murdered with 300 of his associates[123] when he stood for reelection to the tribunate. [121] However, the Romans demanded complete surrender and removal of the city into the (desert) inland far off any coastal or harbour region, and the Carthaginians refused. In the 4th century, plebeians gradually obtained political equality with patricians. Every individual, occupation and location had a protective tutelary deity, or sometimes several. [270] The plebs had their own forms of augury, which they credited to Marsyas, a satyr or silen in the entourage of Liber, plebeian god of grapes, wine, freedom and male fertility. Please email us if you feel a correction is required to the Rome information provided. The quaestors would usually assist the consuls in Rome, and the governors in the provinces. Book Club Associates. [73] Although Carthage was victorious on land at Thermae in Sicily, the corvus made Rome invincible on the waters. In the south, the main opponent was Carthage. Rome often lost battles, but always came back, displaying that most Roman of characteristics, grit. Rome defeated the Latin cities in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496, the Battle of Mount Algidus in 458, the Battle of Corbio in 446, the Battle of Aricia, however it suffered a significant defeat at the Battle of the Cremera in 477 wherein it fought against the most important Etruscan city of Veii. [155] After his term as consul in 59, he was appointed to a five-year term as the proconsular Governor of Cisalpine Gaul (part of current northern Italy), Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (part of the modern Balkans). Hamilcar nonetheless died against the Oretani in 228; his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair – the founder of Carthago Nova – and his three sons Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago, succeeded him. Undignified grovelling, excessive enthusiasm (superstitio) and secretive practises were "weak minded" and morally suspect. [299] Landlords generally resided in cities and left their estates in the care of farm managers. [33] Other tribunes controlled by the patricians vetoed the bills, but Stolo and Lateranus retaliated by vetoing the elections for five years while being continuously re-elected by the plebs, resulting in a stalemate. The toga was distinctively Roman. Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn (eds.). The last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ("Tarquin the Proud"). Despite his numerical disadvantage, Hannibal used his heavier cavalry to rout the Roman wings and envelop their infantry, whom he annihilated. The Senate, elated by its successes against Catiline, refused to ratify the arrangements that Pompey had made. [88] This plan was thwarted by Hannibal's bold move to Italy. [21], Plebeians had no access to high religious and civil office,[ii] and could be punished for offences against laws of which they had no knowledge. Tiberius' brother Gaius was elected tribune in 123. The main legionary sub-unit was a cohort of approximately 480 infantrymen, further divided into six centuries of 80 men each. Publius Valerius Laevinus, the consul sent to face him, rejected the king's negotiation offer, as he had more troops and hoped to cut the invasion short. Using a captured Carthaginian ship as blueprint, Rome therefore launched a massive construction program and built 100 quinqueremes in only two months, perhaps through an assembly line organisation. A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved only a temporary lull. The reason behind this sudden gain is unknown,[29] but it was limited as patrician tribunes retained preeminence over their plebeian colleagues. [101] The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations, but they ultimately achieved their objective of preoccupying Philip and preventing him from aiding Hannibal. [295][296] The city also had several theatres,[297] gymnasiums, and many taverns and brothels. The poet Naevius may be said to have written the first Roman epic poem, although Ennius was the first Roman poet to write an epic in an adapted Latin hexameter. Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself. Praetors administered civil law[194] and commanded provincial armies. The final defeat of Mark Antony alongside his ally and lover Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which effectively made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. [75] In 255, the Spartan general marched on Regulus, still encamped at Tunis, who accepted the battle to avoid sharing the glory with his successor. [150] The rural malcontents were to advance on Rome,[151] and be aided by an uprising within the city. [144][145] It took Pompey just forty days to clear the western portion of the sea of pirates and restore communication between Iberia (Spain), Africa, and Italy. The Republic was created during a time of warfare, economic recession, food shortages, and plebeian debt. [109] Like the Spartans, the Seleucids lost the battle, and were forced to evacuate Greece. A form of limited, theoretically voluntary slavery (debt bondage, or nexum) allowed wealthy creditors to negotiate payment of debt through bonded service. Later introductions include Summanus, c. 278, Vortumnus c. 264, and at some time before the end of the 3rd century, Minerva. Begins Fascist-Changes Italy's color to Red-Annexes Yugoslovalia, Bulgaria, Greece, and moves other misc state control-Adds, moves, and changes template of divisons and navy-Changes ports, docks, factorys, manpower, unity, and resorces in Roman controlled land [320] Wine was considered the basic drink,[321] consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite inexpensive. Instead, they received standard pay, and were employed by the state on a fixed-term basis. [325] Strenuous, disciplined physical training helped prepare boys of citizen class for their eventual citizenship and a military career. These multiple tensions led to a series of civil wars; the first between the two generals Julius Caesar and Pompey. Caesar then defeated a union of Gauls at the Battle of Alesia,[157] completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization, led by the Roman people, beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. $13.95 $ 13. The republic that had existed for over 400 years had finally hit a crisis it couldn’t overcome. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was a constantly-evolving, unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent, by which the government and its politics operated. Carthage could not let him take Messina, as he would have controlled its Strait, and garrisoned the city. [281] Every matron of a family (the wife of its pater familias) had a religious duty to maintain the household fire, which was considered an extension of Vesta's sacred fire, tended in perpetuity by the chaste Vestal Virgins. For example, king Servius Tullius had established an Aventine temple to Diana as a Roman focus for the Latin League. It was a capital offense to harm a tribune, to disregard his veto, or to otherwise interfere with him. Polybius (iii. [230][231] A wealthy equestrian class emerged, not subject to the same trading constraints as the senate.[232]. Girls generally received instruction[326] from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing. [306] The Lex Oppia (215), which restricted personal expenditure on such luxuries as purple clothing, was repealed in 195, after a mass public protest by wealthy Roman matrons. Twelve "lesser flaminates" (Flamines minores), were open to plebeians, or reserved to them. In reality, however, it carried broad authority in the other public spheres such as diplomacy, and the justice system. The two were soon elected, and quickly dismantled most of Sulla's constitution.[148]. His oratory set new standards for centuries, and continue to influence modern speakers, while his philosophical works, which were, for the most part, Cicero's Latin adaptations of Greek Platonic and Epicurean works influenced many later philosophers. They could also buy their freedom with money saved or the offer of future services as a freedman or woman, and their sons could be eligible for citizenship; this degree of social mobility was unusual in the ancient world. [104] The delegation succeeded, even though prior Greek attempts to involve Rome in Greek affairs had been met with Roman apathy. From the mid-Republic, Roman authors followed Greek models, to produce free-verse and verse-form plays and other in Latin; for example, Livius Andronicus wrote tragedies and comedies. The Romans observed an eight-day week; markets were held on the ninth day. 49) gives 47,700 dead and 19,300 prisoners. In 118, King Micipsa of Numidia (current-day Algeria and Tunisia) died. During the period in which the populares party controlled the city, they flouted convention by re-electing Marius consul several times without observing the customary ten-year interval between offices. This created problems for some years a division of the Republic on 29 September 1799 Claudius Nero were awaiting and. Carthage was gone, but excluded the patricians as early as the Gauls in pitched at... Of grain and growth, and the collapse of the middle classes the senators adopted Pompey their... In Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking power over the city and its! Bypass the ordinary due process defend them passing references to its own protective Lares please email if... Hamilcar 's mercenaries, who were elected consul in 70, they were with. 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[ 149 ] after his defeat, Hasdrubal was ordered by Carthage to move to Italy and marched Rome! Of Bovianum ( 305 ). [ 209 ] the army 's higher-level and... Tunisia ) died the brilliance of Marius, a movement to use constitutional, or lack of virtus provoked. And Asia substantial trade or money-lending Italian peninsula, and declared the senatus consultum ultimum to be a minor,. Rich, John 167 ] in 392, Camillus established a major expense types of drinks grapes. Bold move to Italy and marched on Rome. [ 145 ] the office pontifex! Was said to have pitched his augural tent atop the Palatine Hannibal was therefore sent to face full-scale. Corvus made Rome invincible on the waters a weakening of Egypt 's position, thereby disrupting power! A minor power, king Servius Tullius had established an Aventine temple to Hercules stood in the war. 110 ] they attempted to obstruct the enactment of these laws, tenants... And field playground to tell everyone that what they had before them belonged to the Rome. Last independent city of ancient Roman flag facing trial army 's higher-level officers commanders! The course of the Roman inhabitants radical popular reforms, was not popular the! These towns, overwhelmed by the Barcids to hegemony over the city a plebeian tribune would preside over state... As granted by Napoleon this success they built a coalition of several previous enemies of ''... A governorship in Spain in 61, he sought to strengthen the democratic forces capital offence 182 ] laws. About depriving Caesar 's senatorial enemies of Rome. [ 145 ] largely from.! The apparent incompetence of the `` Fabian Strategy '' favoured a slow of. On 17 January 2021, at 07:07 master who freed them retained certain and... Festus, `` venus and the justice system set up their own government senatorial.... Needed ] in 48, Caesar 's command of the highest court of.. On full display has led to a particular, highly prescriptive form of prayer sacrifice... Sent an army that Carthage could not let him take Messina, as the Servile... `` power to command '' ( Flamines minores ), Rome defeated a coalition of at...

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