At its third meeting, in August 1957, the group settled on Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) as its name, expanding its focus beyond buses to ending all forms of segregation. For suggested starting resources, click on the link above. Despite tactical differences, which arose from Graham's willingness to continue affiliating himself with segregationists, the SCLC and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association had similar ambitions and Graham would privately advise the SCLC. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was created on January 10-11, 1957, when sixty black ministers and civil rights leaders met in Atlanta, Georgia in an effort to replicate the successful strategy and tactics of the recently concluded Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott. Well, it got his attention all right. Only a few churches had the courage to defy the white-dominated status-quo by affiliating with SCLC, and those that did risked economic retaliation against pastors and other church leaders, arson, and bombings. Black voter applicants were subjected to economic retaliation by the White Citizens' Council, and threatened with physical violence by the Ku Klux Klan. When the state of Tennessee revoked Highlander's charter and confiscated its land and property in 1961, SCLC rescued the citizenship school program and added Septima Clark, Bernice Robinson, and Andrew Young to its staff. Prior to his recent responsibility as CEO and CTO of Bosch Automotive Steering GmbH, he held leadership roles across a variety of departments, including engineering, sales, marketing and operations within Bosch and its portfolio of companies.  Those in attendance, among others, included: Edward Kennedy, James Bevel, Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Fred Shuttlesworth, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin. This was by far the largest school integration attempt in Mississippi since the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954.  The initial targets included Martin Luther King Jr. and others associated with the SCLC. P: (650) 723-2092 | F: (650) 723-2093 | firstname.lastname@example.org | Campus Map. " King was reinstated only one week later after promising to take a more active role. The SCLC brought together all the various civil rights organizations and put them under one organization. , In 1961 and 1962, SCLC joined SNCC in the Albany Movement, a broad protest against segregation in Albany, Georgia. and providing a short list of concerns they wished to raise with "white Southerners of goodwill". Hundreds were arrested on sit-ins and marches opposing segregation, so many that the jails were filled and the overflow prisoners had to be held in outdoor stockades. The most dramatic moments of the Birmingham campaign came on May 2, when, under the direction and leadership of James Bevel, who would soon officially become SCLC's Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education, more than 1,000 Black children left school to join the demonstrations; hundreds were arrested. Southern Christian Leadership Council Tulsa Chapter. It was also a logistical triumph—more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered aircraft, and uncounted autos converged on the city in the morning and departed without difficulty by nightfall. Many black community leaders believed that segregation should be challenged in the courts and that direct action excited white resistance, hostility, and violence. Document-based lesson plans and online educational resources related to the modern African American Freedom Struggle. The brutal response of local police, led by Public Safety Commissioner "Bull" Connor, stood in stark contrast to the nonviolent civil disobedience of the activists.  Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech.  Within five months, Congress and President Lyndon Johnson responded to the enormous public pressure generated by the Selma Voting Rights Movement by enacting into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965. On January 10, 1957, following the Montgomery bus boycott victory and consultations with Bayard Rustin, Ella Baker, and others, Martin Luther King Jr. invited about 60 black ministers and leaders to Ebenezer Church in Atlanta. King, SCLC, and DCVL chose Selma as the site for a major campaign around voting rights that would demand national voting rights legislation in the same way that the Birmingham and St. Augustine campaigns won passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. When the Meredith Mississippi March Against Fear passed through Grenada, Mississippi on June 15, 1966, it sparked months of civil rights activity on the part of Grenada blacks. , SCLC and King were also sometimes criticized for lack of militancy by younger activists in groups such as Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and CORE who were participating in sit-ins and Freedom Rides. G: Unitary: 176: 36: Good (2002–04), 3 * (2005–08) No overall control over its existence: 5%: A unitary council in southern England with a mostly affluent population, in which no single party had control. , After the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968, leadership was transferred to Ralph Abernathy, who presided until 1977. The boycott was not ended until early November when SCLC attorneys won a Federal court order that the school system treat everyone equal regardless of race and meet with black parents. American Prophet: Online Course Companion, Freedom's Ring: King's "I Have a Dream" Speech. , Originally started in 1954 by Esau Jenkins and Septima Clark on the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, the Citizenship Schools focused on teaching adults to read so they could pass the voter-registration literacy tests, fill out driver's license exams, use mail-order forms, and open checking accounts. King also addressed the question of "timeliness": One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Eventually, close to 69,000 teachers, most of them unpaid volunteers and many with little formal education, taught Citizenship Schools throughout the South. Under the auspices of the Highlander Folk School (now Highlander Research and Education Center) the program was expanded across the South. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library, Washington, D.C. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library, San Jose, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Southern_Christian_Leadership_Conference&oldid=996858107, Christian organizations established in 1957, 1957 establishments in Georgia (U.S. state), Civil rights organizations in the United States, Nonviolence organizations based in the United States, Non-profit organizations based in Georgia (U.S. state), Articles using NRISref without a reference number, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles to be expanded from December 2009, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, communicating what they had included in telegrams sent that day to applicable members (, sharing an outline of their overall position regarding the restrictions against the "elementary democratic rights [. The Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) was created on January 10, 1957, after the Montgomery Bus Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. council for world mission Latest News and Events Check out Council for World Mission's latest news and events. On February 1, King and Abernathy were arrested. © Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. A comprehensive collection of Dr. King's most significant correspondence, sermons, speeches, published writings, and unpublished manuscripts. Out of these two meetings came a new organization with King as its president. The Alabama "Literacy Test", "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- Grenada Mississippi—Chronology of a Movement", "Negroes Beaten in Grenada School Integration", "Program from the SCLC's Tenth Annual Convention", "M.L. Martin Luther King Jr. was chosen as the first president of this new group … SMU's more than 12,000 students benefit from small classes, research opportunities, leadership development, international study and innovative programs. When voter registration and civil rights activity in Selma, Alabama were blocked by an illegal injunction, the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) asked SCLC for assistance. For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" Unfortunately, we do not have the capacity to respond to all the research requests we receive. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was "well timed" in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. When school officials refused to meet with a delegation of black parents, black students began boycotting both the white and black schools in protest. Over the following days, white mobs continued to attack the black children until public pressure and a Federal court order finally forced Mississippi lawmen to intervene. [contradictory], In 1997, Martin Luther King III was unanimously elected to head the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, replacing Joseph Lowery. , SCLC's advocacy of boycotts and other forms of nonviolent protest was controversial among both whites and blacks. A database of King-related primary documents and recommended scholarly sources. The group continued this initial meeting on January 11, calling it (in keeping with the recent bus segregation issue) a Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration when they held a press conference that day. Please treat my donations as Gift Aid donations. Prior to this, Rustin, in New York City, conceived the idea of initiating such an effort and first sought C. K. Steele to make the call and take the lead role. By mid-October, the number of blacks attending the white schools had dropped to roughly 70. He was accused of failing to answer correspondence from the board and take up issues important to the organization. Visit NC-SARA's DIrectory to find a list of all SARA-approved institutions and regional and state contact information. , In August 1967, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) instructed its program "COINTELPRO" to "neutralize" what the FBI called "black nationalist hate groups" and other dissident groups. Social activism in favor of racial equality faced fierce repression from police, White Citizens' Council and the Ku Klux Klan. The Institute cannot give permission to use or reproduce any of the writings, statements, or images of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Eurofins Scientific Group Operating Council (Management Board) carries out the Group's strategy and handles the day-to-day business. Suggested readings about the Civil Rights Movement, fun facts, and audio-visual resources. , SCLC was governed by an elected Board, and established as an organization of affiliates, most of which were either individual churches or community organizations such as the Montgomery Improvement Association and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR). Among the northern supporters who endured arrest and incarceration were Mrs. Malcolm Peabody, the mother of the governor of Massachusetts and Mrs. John Burgess, wife of the Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts. Canon Law Council. Database with the archival locations of King-related documents, a King Encyclopedia, ancillary Institute publications, and recommended readings. It began on March 21 and arrived in Montgomery on the 24th. Bayard Rustin issued similar calls for a March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The council had achieved good to excellent scores in the CPA and had generated a large number of complaints under the code. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s (SCLC) main goal was to promote civil rights in America in a non-violent manner. ... Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary. They offered to pay my bus fare back to Pennsylvania, so, I nobly agreed. The Johns Island Citizenship School was housed at The Progressive Club, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007.. Nonviolent mass marches demanded the right to vote and the jails filled up with arrested protesters, many of them students.  Many of the Civil Rights Movement's adult leaders such as Fannie Lou Hamer and Victoria Gray, and hundreds of other local leaders in black communities across the South attended and taught citizenship schools. It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. From motivational speakers to outings, bonfires, games, challenges, prayer, and songs, One Way continues to be … Steele declined, but told Rustin he would be glad to work right beside him if he sought King in Montgomery for the role. However, on January 21, 2011, fifteen months after her election, Bernice King declined the position of president. When the VS term was over, the Southern Christian Leadership Council office asked if any of us could work for a week or two. Its president was Martin Luther King Jr. ", This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 23:17. After him, the president was Charles Steele Jr., and in 2009, Howard W. Creecy Jr. Next were Isaac Newton Farris Jr. and current president C. T. Vivian, who took office in 2012 and remains today. King-related primary and secondary sources and a guide for History Day research. 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