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[228] On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village. The hot winds (loo) of Bihar plains blow during April and May with an average velocity of 8–16 km/h (5–10 mph). [30] Frost sometimes occurs, but the hallmark of the season is the notorious fog, which frequently disrupts daily life; fog grows thick enough to hinder visibility and disrupt air travel 15–20 days annually. [345] Kerala's rural poverty rate fell from 59% (1973–1974) to 12% (1999–2010); the overall (urban and rural) rate fell 47% between the 1970s and 2000s against the 29% fall in overall poverty rate in India. 2008. [13] Simultaneously, the Thar Desert plays a role in attracting moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. It is not as much colder like rest of the India. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea[14] to the west. [302] The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. [338] Kerala is also widely regarded as the cleanest and healthiest state in India. [306][307][308] It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication. Based on observations, heat wave related mortality has increased in India prior to 2005. [79], The average annual precipitation of 11,861 millimetres (467 in) in the village of Mawsynram, in the hilly northeastern state of Meghalaya, is the highest recorded in Asia, and possibly on Earth. [368] However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. [59][60] These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam. Elevations above 6,000 metres (19,685 ft) never experience rain; all precipitation falls as snow. The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. Lying between northern latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and eastern longitudes 74°52' and 77°22', Kerala experiences humid tropical rainforest climatewith some cyclones. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. [289] National Highways in Kerala are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. [440] Other educational boards are the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 05:21. According to the Human Development Report of 1996, Kerala's Gender Development Index was 597; higher than any other state of India. These two factors do however increase the impact of heat waves, as both lead to increased mortality. [450][451], The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture. Kochi also has another major project SmartCity under construction, built in partnership with Dubai Government. Cricketers, like Tinu Yohannan, Abey Kuruvilla, Sreesanth, Sanju Samson and Basil Thampi found places in the national cricket team. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Hill stations, such as Ootacamund ("Ooty") in the Western Ghats and Kalimpong in the eastern Himalayas, with average maximum temperatures of around 25 °C (77 °F), offer some respite from the heat. Most part of the nation doesn't experience temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F) even in winter. [127] On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act. As in much of the tropics, monsoonal and other weather patterns in India can be strongly variable: epochal droughts, heat waves, floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters are sporadic, but have displaced or ended millions of human lives. [462] "Elephants, firework displays and huge crowds" are the major attractions of Thrissur Pooram. Najith Kumar, K.K. Thalassery Cuisine is varied and is a blend of many influences. Winter. In eastern India, monsoon onset dates have been steadily advancing over the past several decades, resulting in shorter summers there.[23]. Kerala is a standout amongst the most wonderful states in India, offers heaps of grand charms to its guests. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines. [33] The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau by preventing frigid and dry Arctic winds from blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South Asia much warmer than corresponding temperate regions in the other continents. [56]:110 Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain. [28] They are carried towards India by the subtropical westerlies, which are the prevailing winds blowing at North India's range of latitude. Soon after the monsoon season in the middle of December the winter season starts here with moderately cold up to the mid of February or March. [33] The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. [366]:5 Kerala's 13.3% prevalence of low birth weight is higher than that of many first world nations. "Jews in India." It can be divided into 4 seasons - Winter, Summer, South-West Monsoon and North-East Monsoon. Fertility rate is highest in Malappuram district (2.2) and lowest in Pathanamthitta district (1.3). [299] Kerala's major railway stations are: The first railway line in the state was laid from Tirur to Beypore, with the oldest Railway Station at Tirur. [114][115], In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen.[98][99]. [99], The Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research has reported that, if the predictions relating to global warming made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change come to fruition, climate-related factors could cause India's GDP to decline by up to 9%. [58] Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. The Puranas. [344] In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme. The India Meteorological Department doubts the validity of 55 °C (131 °F) readings reported in Orissa during 2005. The monsoon season delivers four-fifths of the country's precipitation. [233]) By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.[234]. During the Late Paleozoic, Gondwana extended from a point at or near the South Pole to near the equator, where the Indian craton (stable continental crust) was positioned, resulting in a mild climate favorable to hosting high-biomass ecosystems. [208][209] The "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of very high human development and in comparison low economic development has resulted from a strong service sector.[168]:48[210]:1. Brill, Leiden Boston: 2010, 3: 92. Television serials, reality shows and the Internet have become major sources of entertainment and information for the people of Kerala. However, since the town of Cherrapunji, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to the east, is the nearest town to host a meteorological office—none has ever existed in Mawsynram—it is officially credited as being the world's wettest place. Kerala During January 2014. [459], Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. [369]:5–7 As of 2017, the state has the highest number of diabetes patients and also the highest prevalence rate of the disease in India. Kerala hardly has cold winters. These forecasts are statistics for the month of december from weather reports for many years. "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi. Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the centr… with moderate temperatures. [317] The main constraints to the expansion of inland navigation are; lack of depth in waterways caused by silting, lack of maintenance of navigation systems and bank protection, accelerated growth of the water hyacinth, lack of modern inland craft terminals, and lack of a cargo handling system. [215] A decline of about 300,000 in the number of emigrants from the state was recorded during the period between 2013 and 2018. [320] The state's 321,000 indigenous tribal Adivasis, 1.10% of the population, are concentrated in the east. The Coastal State Kerala has cold Climate in the Month of January. [27], The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala as Cherapadha is the late Vedic text Aitareya Aranyaka. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. During this season, the weather remains pleasant and ideal for planning a perfect holiday in Kerala. It is a region of barren, arid, frigid and wind-blown wastelands. With 590 kilometres (370 miles) of coastal belt,[273] 400,000 hectares of inland water resources[274] and approximately 220,000 active fishermen,[275] Kerala is one of the leading producers of fish in India. [325], Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 (females to males) is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men. We have Christmas 2020 Wishes, Funny Christmas wishes & Merry Christmas Wishes. [375] These propagate via gurukula discipleship,[374]:5–6 and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and alternative treatments. To the west, in Gujarat, diverse climate conditions prevail. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit-out others like them". [91] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[90]. [304][305] The Kochi Metro uses 65-metre long Metropolis train sets built and designed by Alstom. Climate in north India is generally hotter than south India whereas the South India gets more humid due to nearby coasts. [citation needed] From the 1990s, liberalisation of the mixed economy allowed Licence Raj restrictions against capitalism and foreign direct investment to be lightened, leading to economic expansion and an increase in employment. South India gets more humid due to nearby coasts. [159] Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon. Noticeably drier than areas with a tropical monsoon climate, it prevails over most of inland peninsular India except for a semi arid rain shadow east of the Western Ghats. [447][448] Kerala topped in the School Education Quality Index published by NITI Aayog in 2019. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra. When: 15th January 2021 So, January translates to magha in the Lunar calendar and the people of Assam in India welcome their harvest by celebrating Bihu. Winter and early summer are long and dry periods with temperatures averaging above 18 °C (64 °F). The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors have contributed 23.94% and 66.72%, respectively. [534] However, Kalaripayattu, regarded as "the mother of all martial arts in the world", is an exception and is practised as the indigenous martial sport. [309] In October 2017, Kochi Metro was named the "Best Urban Mobility Project" in India by the Urban Development Ministry, as part of the Urban Mobility India (UMI) International Conference hosted by the ministry every year.[310]. By May, most of the Indian interior experiences mean temperatures over 32 °C (90 °F), while maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F). [437] After the first 10 years of schooling, students typically enroll in Higher Secondary Schooling in one of the three major streams—liberal arts, commerce, or science. [381], Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in Kerala, with significant Muslim and Christian minorities. [234] The 2013 Tendulkar Committee Report on poverty estimated that the percentages of the population living below the poverty line in rural and urban Kerala are 9.14% and 4.97%, respectively. [37] A product of southeast trade winds originating from a high-pressure mass centred over the southern Indian Ocean, the monsoonal torrents supply over 80% of India's annual rainfall. That is from the month November till the middle of February. [184], There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur. [527] The most widely circulated Malayalam-language newspapers are Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Mangalam Publications, Kerala Kaumudi, Chandrika, Suprabhaatham, Janayugam, Janmabhumi, Deepika and Siraj Daily. The industry provides employment to approximately 1.2 million people.[564]. Since the land is very fertile all types of vegetation is possible here and from the onset of April the land bloomed flowers and freshness up to July. [512] Rice is a dominant staple that is eaten at all times of day. Its origins can be traced back to Travancore State Road Transport Department, when the Travancore government headed by Sri. [160] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,[161] making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. Transport services are mainly provided by country craft and passenger vessels. While winters in some regions is just pleasant, it snows in North India. [488][489] Directors from Kerala, like Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, Bharathan, P. Padmarajan, M.T.Vasudevan Nair, K.G. January is winter Season, truly enjoyable in Kerala. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,[172]:6–7 much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling. [443][444] It was developed to support ICT enabled education for schools in the state. [500][501][502] In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith winning poets and writers like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, M. T. Vasudevan Nair and O. N. V. Kurup had made valuable contributions to the modern Malayalam literature. Regional variation in rainfall across India. The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundr) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. [473] The total duration of Onam is 10 days and it is celebrated all across Kerala. [130][131][132] His government implemented land and educational reforms. [24] In terms of environmental lapse rate, ambient temperatures fall by 6.5 °C (11.7 °F) for every 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) rise in altitude. It is one of the country's oldest state-run public bus transport services. In 2015 Kerala became the first "complete digital state" by implementing e-governance initiatives. In Kerala the winter season starts when the northeast monsoons ends. [145] Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 m (8,842 ft). Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. [265][266] The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini. Map showing winds zones, shaded by distribution of average speeds of prevailing winds. [434], According to the first economic census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), 98.6% had a middle school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi). [57] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra. [94], Severe landslides and floods are projected to become increasingly common in such states as Assam. [282] Roads in Kerala include 1,812 kilometres (1,126 mi) of national highway; 1.6% of the nation's total, 4,342 kilometres (2,698 mi) of state highway; 2.5% of the nation's total, 27,470 kilometres (17,070 mi) of district roads; 4.7% of the nation's total, 33,201 kilometres (20,630 mi) of urban (municipal) roads; 6.3% of the nation's total, and 158,775 kilometres (98,658 mi) of rural roads; 3.8% of the nation's total. [569] Munnar is 4,500 feet above sea level and is known for tea plantations, and a variety of flora and fauna. For the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup in India, the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Kochi), was chosen as one of the six venues where the game would be hosted in India. [29] The five Himalayan states (Jammu and Kashmir in the extreme north, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh) and Northern West Bengal experience heavy snowfall, Manipur and Nagaland are not located in the Himalayas but experience occasional snowfall; in Jammu and Kashmir, blizzards occur regularly, disrupting travel and other activities. The corporation is divided into three zones (North, Central and South), with the headquarters in Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala's capital city). Substantial administrative, legal and financial powers are delegated to these bodies to ensure efficient decentralisation. Mornings are pleasantly warm and evenings are mildly chilly. [170] As of 2004[update], over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Frigid winds from the Himalayas can depress temperatures near the Brahmaputra River. India's lowest recorded temperature was −60.0 °C (−76 °F) in Dras, Ladakh. [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. [571] The Kerala backwaters are an extensive network of interlocking rivers (41 west-flowing rivers), lakes, and canals that centre around Alleppey, Kumarakom and Punnamada (where the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race is held in August), Pathiramanal a small island in Muhamma . Kerala can be best delighted in amid all season however winter is considered as the best season to design a trip to Kerala. Tamils, became linguistically separate during this month temperature is comparatively low but … Kochi – Bustling Port.! Perfect spots to visit Kerala for holidays winter season in kerala wikipedia A. m ; 1984 Podipara... Mainly English and Malayalam [ 521 ] these are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including Nilgiri... Portuguese Padroado in the 1990s prime as among the lowest amount of in... 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